Techniques of propaganda generation
A number of techniques which are based on research are used tosocial psychological
generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under ,logical fallacies since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.
Some time has been spent analyzing the means by which propaganda messages are
transmitted. That work is important but it is clear that information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled with . Identifying thesepropagandistic messages messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages arespread. That is why it is essential to have some knowledge of the following techniques for generating propaganda:
- Appeal to authority: Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a position idea, argument, or course of action.
- Appeal to fear: Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling fear in the general population, for example, exploited ’sJoseph Goebbels Theodore Kaufman Germany Must to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the German people.Perish!
- Argumentum ad nauseam: Uses tireless repetition. An idea once repeated enough times, is taken as the truth. Works best when media sources are limited and controlled by the propagator.
- Bandwagon: Bandwagon and inevitable-victory appeals attempt to persuade the target audience to take the course of action that „everyone else is taking.“
Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those already on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action.
- Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people’s natural desire to be on the winning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is an expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best interest tojoin.
- Black-and-White fallacy: Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice. (Eg. You can have an unhealthy, unreliable engine, or you can use Brand X oil)
- Common man: The „plain folks“ or „common man“ approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist’s positions reflect the common sense of the people. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to identify their point of view with that of the average person.
- Direct order: This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process. The propagandist uses images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority figures can be used to give the order, overlapping it with the technique, but not necessarily. TheAppeal to authority Uncle Sam „I want you“ image is an example of this technique.
- Euphoria: The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness in lieu of spreading more sadness, or using a good event to try to cover up another. Or creating a celebrateable event in the hopes of boosting morale. Euphoria can be used to take one’s mind from a worse feeling. i.e. a holiday or parade.
- Falsifying information: The creation or deletion of information from public records, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a person during a court session, or possibly a battle, etc. Pseudoscience is often used in this way.
- Flag-waving: An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will make one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group, country, or idea. The feeling of patriotism which this technique attempts to inspire may diminish or entirely omit one’s capability for rational examination of the matter in question.
- Glittering generalities: Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words applied to a product or idea, but which present no concrete argument or analysis. A famous example is the campaign slogan „Ford has a better idea!“
- Intentional vagueness: Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determine their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw their own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea. In trying to „figure out“ the propaganda, the audience foregoes judgment of the ideas presented. Their validity, reasonableness and application is not considered.
- Obtain disapproval or : This technique is used to persuade aReductio ad Hitlerum target audience to disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience. Thus if a group which supports a certain policy is led to believe that undesirable, subversive, or contemptible people support the same policy, then the members of the group may decide to change their original position.
- Oversimplification: Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems.
- Rationalization: Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationalize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs.
- Red herring: Presenting data that is irrelevant, then claiming that it validates your argument.
- Scapegoating: Assigning blame to an individual or group that isn’t really responsible, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assigned.
- Slogans: A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling and stereotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support reasoned ideas, in practice they tend to act only as emotional appeals. Opposing slogans about warfare in Iraq or the Middle East, for example, such as „blood for oil“ or „cut and run,“ are considered by some to have stifled debate. On the other hand, the names of the military campaigns, such as „enduring freedom“ or „just cause“, may also be regarded to be slogans, devised to prevent free thought on the issues. or Name Calling
- Stereotyping or Labeling: This technique attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For instance, reporting on a foreign country or social group may focus on the stereotypical traits that the reader expects, even though they are far from being representative of the whole country or group; such reporting often focuses on the .anecdotal
- Testimonial: Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reputation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual giving the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effort to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accept the authority’s opinions and beliefs as its own. See also, damaging quotation
- Transfer: Also known as association, this is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (an individual, group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another in order to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional response, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Often highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols (for example, the Swastika used in Nazi Germany, originally a symbol for health and prosperity) superimposed over other visual images. An example of common use of and prosperity) superimposed over other visual images. An example of common use of this technique in America is for the President to be filmed or photographed in front of the American flag.
- Unstated assumption: This technique is used when the propaganda concept the propagandist want to transmit would seem less credible if explicitly stated. It is instead repeatedly assumed or implied.
- Virtue words: These are words in the value system of the target audience which tend to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happiness, security, wise leadership, freedom, etc. are virtue words. See „“ „“.Transfer
See also: , , , , ,doublespeak meme cult of personality spin demonization factoid
Techniques of propaganda transmission
Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, , books, leaflets, , , , and posters.junk science movies radio television In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announce „spots“ or as long-running advertorials. The magazine , issued by the organization, folds propagandaTricontinental Cuban OSPAAAL posters and places one in each copy, allowing a very broad distribution of pro-Fidel Castro propaganda.
Ideally a propaganda campaign will follow a strategic transmission pattern to fully indoctrinate a group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hotline, radio program, et cetera. The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to through indoctrination. A successful propagandaopinion leader campaign includes this cyclical -reproducing process.meme
The Propaganda Model
The is a advanced by and thatpropaganda model theory Edward S. Herman Noam Chomsky alleges systemic in the and seeks to explain them in terms of structuralbiases mass media .economic causes
First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass , the views the private as businesses selling a product —Media propaganda model media readers and (rather than ) — to other businesses (advertisers). The theoryaudiences news postulates five general classes of „filters“ that determine the type of news that is presented in news media. These five are:
- Ownership of the medium
- Medium’s sourcesfunding
- Anti-communist ideology
The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important.
Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of media,United States and believe the is equally applicable to any country that shares theChomsky Herman theory basic economic structure and organizing principles which the postulates as the cause ofmodel . After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Chomsky stated that the new filtermedia biases replacing communism would be terrorism and Islam.