(Malic Acid and Magnesium Help)


Aluminum toxicity may play a role in symptoms experienced by magnesium deficient FM patients. Magnesium is required by the body to help block the toxic effects of aluminum. Aluminum inhibits glycolysis (breakdown of sugars) and oxidative phosphorylation resulting in decreased intramitochondrial ATP production. In addition, due to its high affinity for phosphate groups, aluminum blocks the absorption and utilization of phosphates vital to the synthesis of ATP! This adds to the problem of intramitochondrial phosphate deficiency.

It is widely known that aluminum overload can lead to major metabolic disturbances. Researchers have studied removal of the toxic metal, especially from the body’s vital organs.


An adequate amount of magnesium helps to prevent the toxic effects of aluminum.

Malic acid can act as a most potent aluminum detoxifying agent and is especially effective at decreasing aluminum toxicity in the brain. Treatment with malic acid has been shown to greatly increase the fecal and urinary excretion of aluminum, and reduce the concentration of aluminum found in various organs and tissues.

Diagnostic Criteria for Muscle Morphology, Chemistry, and Physiology

(as proposed by M. Yunis, A.T. Masi, J.J. Calabro, et al)

  1. Degeneration of muscle fibers or signals of inflammation are uncommon.
  2. The energy producing system in the muscle fibers is compromised through changes in chemical, morphological, and neurophysiological.
  3. Hypoxia (low oxygen levels) is present in painful muscles.
  4. The maintenance of pain is conducted through the sympathetic nervous system.
  5. Muscular pain in FM is nociceptive or stimulated by a injury signal.

Requirements for the Optimal Synthesis of ATP by Intact Respiring Cells (Mitochondria):

The Role of Malic Acid and Magnesium

Cell Requirements Primary Sources Cell (Intramitochondrial) Conditions Postulated To Induce A Deficiency
Oxygen Cardiopulmonary Hypoxia, malic acid deficiency, magnesium deficiency
Magnesium Food Excess aluminum, excess
Substrate Food Severe malnutrition, malate
ADP ATP Phosphate deficiency,
magnesium deficiency
Food Manganese deficiency,
excess calcium
Capacity of the Respiratory Chain Food/ Genetics Vitamins Bl, B2, and B6 are essential for the electron transport system in
the respiratory chain. To become biologically active, all three vitamins require a magnesium dependent
phosphate transfer.
Mitochondrial Membrane Integrity Food/ Genetics Magnesium deficiency results in mitochondrial swelling, increased membrane permeability and
upcoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.


Recently, the Journal of Nutritional Medicine published a study on the combined effects of malic acid and magnesium on FM patients. In open clinical setting scientists used oral magnesium and a malic acid preparation. Fifteen patients, aged 32 to 60, ingested 1200 to 2400 mg. of malic acid with 300 to 600 mg. of magnesium for a period of 4 to 8 weeks. The results of the study were remarkable.


All the patients reported significant pain relief within 48 hours of treatment and within 4 to 8 weeks all patients had a lowered Tender Point Index (TPI). The results of this nutritionally based approach shows the possibility of a very promising treatment approach for FM.